role Numeric { ... }

Common role for numbers and types that can act as numbers.

Binary numeric operations return an object of the "wider" type:

Int         narrowest
Rat
FatRat
Num
Complex     widest

So for example the product of a Rat and an Int is a Rat.

Unary operations that in pure math usually return an irrational number generally return Num in Raku.

Methods§

method Numeric§

multi method Numeric(Numeric:D: --> Numeric:D)
multi method Numeric(Numeric:U: --> Numeric:D)

The :D variant simply returns the invocant. The :U variant issues a warning about using an uninitialized value in numeric context and then returns self.new.

method narrow§

method narrow(Numeric:D --> Numeric:D)

Returns the number converted to the narrowest type that can hold it without loss of precision.

say (4.0 + 0i).narrow.raku;     # OUTPUT: «4␤» 
say (4.0 + 0i).narrow.^name;    # OUTPUT: «Int␤»

method ACCEPTS§

multi method ACCEPTS(Numeric:D: $other)

Returns True if $other can be coerced to Numeric and is numerically equal to the invocant (or both evaluate to NaN).

routine log§

multi        log(Numeric:DNumeric $base = e --> Numeric:D)
multi method log(Numeric:D: Numeric $base = e --> Numeric:D)

Calculates the logarithm to base $base. Defaults to the natural logarithm. Throws an exception if $base is 1.

Returns NaN for negative arguments. As of 6.e language version (early implementation exists in Rakudo compiler 2023.02+), will return a Complex value for negative arguments.

routine log10§

multi        log10(Numeric:D  --> Numeric:D)
multi method log10(Numeric:D: --> Numeric:D)

Calculates the logarithm to base 10. Returns -Inf for 0.

Returns NaN for negative arguments. As of 6.e language version (early implementation exists in Rakudo compiler 2023.02+), will return a Complex value for negative arguments.

routine log2§

multi        log2(Numeric:D)
multi method log2(Numeric:D:)

Calculates the logarithm to base 2. Returns -Inf for 0.

Returns NaN for negative arguments. As of 6.e language version (early implementation exists in Rakudo compiler 2023.02+), will return a Complex value for negative arguments.

routine exp§

multi        exp(Numeric:DNumeric:D $base = e --> Numeric:D)
multi method exp(Numeric:D: Numeric:D $base = e --> Numeric:D)

Returns $base to the power of the number, or e to the power of the number if called without a second argument.

method roots§

multi method roots(Numeric:D: Int:D $n --> Positional)

Returns a list of the $n complex roots, which evaluate to the original number when raised to the $nth power.

routine abs§

multi        abs(Numeric:D  --> Real:D)
multi method abs(Numeric:D: --> Real:D)

Returns the absolute value of the number.

routine sqrt§

multi        sqrt(Numeric:D --> Numeric:D)
multi method sqrt(Numeric:D --> Numeric:D)

Returns a square root of the number. For real numbers the positive square root is returned.

On negative real numbers, sqrt returns NaN rather than a complex number, in order to not confuse people who are not familiar with complex arithmetic. If you want to calculate complex square roots, coerce to Complex first, or use the roots method.

As of 6.e language version (early implementation exists in Rakudo compiler 2023.02+), will return a Complex value for negative arguments.

method conj§

multi method conj(Numeric:D --> Numeric:D)

Returns the complex conjugate of the number. Returns the number itself for real numbers.

method Bool§

multi method Bool(Numeric:D:)

Returns False if the number is equivalent to zero, and True otherwise.

method succ§

method succ(Numeric:D:)

Returns the number incremented by one (successor).

method pred§

method pred(Numeric:D:)

Returns the number decremented by one (predecessor).

Typegraph§

Type relations for Numeric
raku-type-graph Numeric Numeric Mu Mu Any Any Any->Mu Cool Cool Cool->Any Complex Complex Complex->Numeric Complex->Cool Real Real Real->Numeric Stringy Stringy Str Str Str->Cool Str->Stringy Allomorph Allomorph Allomorph->Str ComplexStr ComplexStr ComplexStr->Complex ComplexStr->Allomorph Instant Instant Instant->Cool Instant->Real Int Int Int->Cool Int->Real Duration Duration Duration->Cool Duration->Real Num Num Num->Cool Num->Real Rational Rational Rational->Real Order Order Order->Int IntStr IntStr IntStr->Allomorph IntStr->Int Endian Endian Endian->Int PromiseStatus PromiseStatus PromiseStatus->Int Bool Bool Bool->Int int int int->Int Signal Signal Signal->Int atomicint atomicint atomicint->Int NumStr NumStr NumStr->Allomorph NumStr->Num FatRat FatRat FatRat->Cool FatRat->Rational Rat Rat Rat->Cool Rat->Rational

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