class Mu { }

The root of the Raku type hierarchy. For the origin of the name, see Mu (negative) on Wikipedia. One can also say that there are many undefined values in Raku, and Mu is the most undefined value.

Note that most classes do not derive from Mu directly, but rather from Any.


method iterator§

method iterator(--> Iterator)

Coerces the invocant to a list by applying its .list method and uses iterator on it.

my $it = Mu.iterator;
say $it.pull-one# OUTPUT: «(Mu)␤» 
say $it.pull-one# OUTPUT: «IterationEnd␤»

method defined§

multi method defined(   --> Bool:D)

Returns False on a type object, and True otherwise.

say Int.defined;                # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say 42.defined;                 # OUTPUT: «True␤»

A few types (like Failure) override defined to return False even for instances:

sub fails() { fail 'oh noe' };
say fails().defined;            # OUTPUT: «False␤»

routine defined§

multi defined(Mu --> Bool:D)

invokes the .defined method on the object and returns its result.

routine isa§

multi method isa(Mu $type     --> Bool:D)
multi method isa(Str:D $type  --> Bool:D)

Returns True if the invocant is an instance of class $type, a subset type or a derived class (through inheritance) of $type. does is similar, but includes roles.

my $i = 17;
say $i.isa("Int");   # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say $i.isa(Any);     # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
role Truish {};
my $but-true = 0 but Truish;
say $but-true.^name;        # OUTPUT: «Int+{Truish}␤» 
say $but-true.does(Truish); # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say $but-true.isa(Truish);  # OUTPUT: «False␤»

routine does§

method does(Mu $type --> Bool:D)

Returns True if and only if the invocant conforms to type $type.

my $d ='2016-06-03');
say $d.does(Dateish);             # OUTPUT: «True␤»    (Date does role Dateish) 
say $d.does(Any);                 # OUTPUT: «True␤»    (Date is a subclass of Any) 
say $d.does(DateTime);            # OUTPUT: «False␤»   (Date is not a subclass of DateTime) 

Unlike isa, which returns True only for superclasses, does includes both superclasses and roles.

say $d.isa(Dateish); # OUTPUT: «False␤» 

Using the smartmatch operator ~~ is a more idiomatic alternative.

my $d ='2016-06-03');
say $d ~~ Dateish;                # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say $d ~~ Any;                    # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say $d ~~ DateTime;               # OUTPUT: «False␤»

routine Bool§

multi        Bool(Mu --> Bool:D)
multi method Bool(   --> Bool:D)

Returns False on the type object, and True otherwise.

Many built-in types override this to be False for empty collections, the empty string or numerical zeros

say Mu.Bool;                    # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say;                # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say [123].Bool;             # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say [].Bool;                    # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say %hash => 'full' ).Bool;   # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say {}.Bool;                    # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say "".Bool;                    # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say 0.Bool;                     # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say 1.Bool;                     # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say "0".Bool;                   # OUTPUT: «True␤»

method Capture§

method Capture(Mu:D: --> Capture:D)

Returns a Capture with named arguments corresponding to invocant's public attributes:

class Foo {
    has $.foo = 42;
    has $.bar = 70;
    method bar { 'something else' }
}.new.Capture.say# OUTPUT: «\(:bar("something else"), :foo(42))␤»

method Str§

multi method Str(--> Str)

Returns a string representation of the invocant, intended to be machine readable. Method Str warns on type objects, and produces the empty string.

say Mu.Str;   # Use of uninitialized value of type Mu in string context. 
my @foo = [2,3,1];
say @foo.Str  # OUTPUT: «2 3 1␤»

routine gist§

multi        gist(+args --> Str)
multi method gist(   --> Str)

Returns a string representation of the invocant, optimized for fast recognition by humans. As such lists will be truncated at 100 elements. Use .raku to get all elements.

The default gist method in Mu re-dispatches to the raku method for defined invocants, and returns the type name in parenthesis for type object invocants. Many built-in classes override the case of instances to something more specific that may truncate output.

gist is the method that say calls implicitly, so say $something and say $something.gist generally produce the same output.

say Mu.gist;        # OUTPUT: «(Mu)␤» 
say;    # OUTPUT: «␤»

method perl§

multi method perl(Mu:)

Calls .raku on the invocant. Since the change of the language name to Raku, this method is deprecated and might disappear in the near future. Use .raku instead.

method raku§

multi method raku(Mu:U:)
multi method raku(Mu:D:)

For type objects, returns its name if .raku has not been redefined from Mu, or calls .raku on the name of the type object otherwise.

say Str.raku;          # OUTPUT: «Str␤»

For plain objects, it will conventionally return a representation of the object that can be used via EVAL to reconstruct the value of the object.

say (1..3).Set.raku;  # OUTPUT: «,2,3)␤»

method item§

method item(Mu \item:is raw

Forces the invocant to be evaluated in item context and returns the value of it.

say [1,2,3].item.raku;          # OUTPUT: «$[1, 2, 3]␤» 
say %apple => 10 ).item.raku# OUTPUT: «${:apple(10)}␤» 
say "abc".item.raku;            # OUTPUT: «"abc"␤»

method self§

method self(--> Mu)

Returns the object it is called on.

method clone§

multi method clone(Mu:U: *%twiddles)
multi method clone(Mu:D: *%twiddles)

This method will clone type objects, or die if it's invoked with any argument.

say Num.clone:yes )
# OUTPUT: «(exit code 1) Cannot set attribute values when cloning a type object␤  in block <unit>␤␤» 

If invoked with value objects, it creates a shallow clone of the invocant, including shallow cloning of private attributes. Alternative values for public attributes can be provided via named arguments with names matching the attributes' names.

class Point2D {
    has ($.x$.y);
    multi method gist(Point2D:D:{
my $p = => 2=> 3);
say $p;                     # OUTPUT: «Point(2, 3)␤» 
say $p.clone(=> -5);      # OUTPUT: «Point(2, -5)␤» 

Note that .clone does not go the extra mile to shallow-copy @. and %. sigiled attributes and, if modified, the modifications will still be available in the original object:

class Foo {
    has $.foo is rw = 42;
    has &.boo is rw = { say "Hi" };
    has       = <a b>;
    has %.baz       = <a b c d>;
my $o1 =;
with my $o2 = $o1.clone {
    .foo = 70;
    .bar = <Z Y>;
    .baz = <Z Y X W>;
    .boo = { say "Bye" };
# Hash and Array attribute modifications in clone appear in original as well: 
say $o1;
# OUTPUT: « => 42, bar => ["Z", "Y"], baz => {:X("W"), :Z("Y")}, …␤» 
say $o2;
# OUTPUT: « => 70, bar => ["Z", "Y"], baz => {:X("W"), :Z("Y")}, …␤» 
$; # OUTPUT: «Hi␤» 
$; # OUTPUT: «Bye␤» 

To clone those, you could implement your own .clone that clones the appropriate attributes and passes the new values to Mu.clone, for example, via nextwith.

class Bar {
    has $.quux;
    has = <a b>;
    has = <a b c d>;
    method clone { nextwith :foo(@!foo.clone), :bar(%!bar.clone), |%_  }
my $o1 = );
with my $o2 = $o1.clone {
    .foo = <Z Y>;
    .bar = <Z Y X W>;
# Hash and Array attribute modifications in clone do not affect original: 
say $o1;
# OUTPUT: « => 42, foo => ["a", "b"], bar => {:a("b"), :c("d")})␤» 
say $o2;
# OUTPUT: « => 42, foo => ["Z", "Y"], bar => {:X("W"), :Z("Y")})␤» 

The |%_ is needed to slurp the rest of the attributes that would have been copied via shallow copy.

method new§

multi method new(*%attrinit)

Default method for constructing (create + initialize) new objects of a class. This method expects only named arguments which are then used to initialize attributes with accessors of the same name.

Classes may provide their own new method to override this default.

new triggers an object construction mechanism that calls submethods named BUILD in each class of an inheritance hierarchy, if they exist. See the documentation on object construction for more information.

method bless§

method bless(*%attrinit --> Mu:D)

Low-level object construction method, usually called from within new, implicitly from the default constructor, or explicitly if you create your own constructor. bless creates a new object of the same type as the invocant, using the named arguments to initialize attributes and returns the created object.

It is usually invoked within custom new method implementations:

class Point {
    has $.x;
    has $.y;
    multi method new($x$y{
my $p =;

In this example we are declaring this new method to avoid the extra syntax of using pairs when creating the object. self.bless returns the object, which is in turn returned by new. new is declared as a multi method so that we can still use the default constructor like this: x => 3, y => 8 ).

For more details see the documentation on object construction.

method CREATE§

method CREATE(--> Mu:D)

Allocates a new object of the same type as the invocant, without initializing any attributes.

say Mu.CREATE.defined;  # OUTPUT: «True␤»

method print§

multi method print(--> Bool:D)

Prints value to $*OUT after stringification using .Str method without adding a newline at end.

"abc\n".print;          # OUTPUT: «abc␤»

method put§

multi method put(--> Bool:D)

Prints value to $*OUT, adding a newline at end, and if necessary, stringifying non-Str object using the .Str method.

"abc".put;              # OUTPUT: «abc␤»

method say§

multi method say()

Will say to standard output.

say 42;                 # OUTPUT: «42␤»

What say actually does is, thus, deferred to the actual subclass. In most cases it calls .gist on the object, returning a compact string representation.

In non-sink context, say will always return True.

say (1,[1,2],"foo",Mu).map: so *.say ;
# OUTPUT: «1␤[1 2]␤foo␤(Mu)␤(True True True True)␤»

However, this behavior is just conventional and you shouldn't trust it for your code. It's useful, however, to explain certain behaviors.

say is first printing out in *.say, but the outermost say is printing the True values returned by the so operation.

method ACCEPTS§

multi method ACCEPTS(Mu:U: $other)

ACCEPTS is the method that smartmatching with the infix ~~ operator and given/when invokes on the right-hand side (the matcher).

The Mu:U multi performs a type check. Returns True if $other conforms to the invocant (which is always a type object or failure).

say 42 ~~ Mu;           # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say 42 ~~ Int;          # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say 42 ~~ Str;          # OUTPUT: «False␤»

Note that there is no multi for defined invocants; this is to allow autothreading of junctions, which happens as a fallback mechanism when no direct candidate is available to dispatch to.

method WHICH§

multi method WHICH(--> ObjAt:D)

Returns an object of type ObjAt which uniquely identifies the object. Value types override this method which makes sure that two equivalent objects return the same return value from WHICH.

say 42.WHICH eq 42.WHICH;       # OUTPUT: «True␤»

method WHERE§

method WHERE(Mu:)

Returns an Int representing the memory address of the object. Please note that in the Rakudo implementation of Raku, and possibly other implementations, the memory location of an object is NOT fixed for the lifetime of the object. So it has limited use for applications, and is intended as a debugging tool only.

method WHY§

multi method WHY(Mu: --> Pod::Block::Declarator)

Returns the attached Pod::Block::Declarator.

For instance:

#| Initiate a specified spell normally 
sub cast(Spell $s{
#= (do not use for class 7 spells) 
say &cast.WHY;
# OUTPUT: «Initiate a specified spell normally␤(do not use for class 7 spells)␤» 

See Pod declarator blocks for details about attaching Pod to variables, classes, functions, methods, etc.

trait is export§

multi trait_mod:<is>(Mu:U \type:$export!)

Marks a type as being exported, that is, available to external users.

my class SomeClass is export { }

A user of a module or class automatically gets all the symbols imported that are marked as is export.

See Exporting and Selective Importing Modules for more details.

method return§

method return()

The method return will stop execution of a subroutine or method, run all relevant phasers and provide invocant as a return value to the caller. If a return type constraint is provided it will be checked unless the return value is Nil. A control exception is raised and can be caught with CONTROL.

sub f { (1|2|3).return };
say f(); # OUTPUT: «any(1, 2, 3)␤»

method return-rw§

Same as method return except that return-rw returns a writable container to the invocant (see more details here: return-rw).

method emit§

method emit()

Emits the invocant into the enclosing supply or react block.

react { whenever supply { .emit for "foo"42.5 } {
    say "received {.^name} ($_)";
# received Str (foo) 
# received Int (42) 
# received Rat (0.5)

method take§

method take()

Returns the invocant in the enclosing gather block.

sub insert($sep+@list{
    gather for @list {
        FIRST .takenext;
        take slip $sep.item
say insert ':', <a b c>;
# OUTPUT: «(a : b : c)␤»

routine take§

sub take(\item)

Takes the given item and passes it to the enclosing gather block.

#| randomly select numbers for lotto 
my $num-selected-numbers = 6;
my $max-lotto-numbers = 49;
gather for ^$num-selected-numbers {
    take (1 .. $max-lotto-numbers).pick(1);
}.say;    # six random values

routine take-rw§

sub take-rw(\item)

Returns the given item to the enclosing gather block, without introducing a new container.

my @a = 1...3;
sub f(@list){ gather for @list { take-rw $_ } };
for f(@a{ $_++ };
say @a;
# OUTPUT: «[2 3 4]␤»

method so§

method so()

Evaluates the item in Boolean context (and thus, for instance, collapses Junctions), and returns the result. It is the opposite of not, and equivalent to the ? operator.

One can use this method similarly to the English sentence: "If that is so, then do this thing". For instance,

my @args = <-a -e -b -v>;
my $verbose-selected = any(@argseq '-v' | '-V';
if $ {
    say "Verbose option detected in arguments";
} # OUTPUT: «Verbose option detected in arguments␤»

The $verbose-selected variable in this case contains a Junction, whose value is any(any(False, False), any(False, False), any(False, False), any(True, False)). That is actually a truish value; thus, negating it will yield False. The negation of that result will be True. so is performing all those operations under the hood.

method not§

method not()

Evaluates the item in Boolean context (leading to final evaluation of Junctions, for instance), and negates the result. It is the opposite of so and its behavior is equivalent to the ! operator.

my @args = <-a -e -b>;
my $verbose-selected = any(@argseq '-v' | '-V';
if $verbose-selected.not {
    say "Verbose option not present in arguments";
} # OUTPUT: «Verbose option not present in arguments␤»

Since there is also a prefix version of not, this example reads better as:

my @args = <-a -e -b>;
my $verbose-selected = any(@argseq '-v' | '-V';
if not $verbose-selected {
    say "Verbose option not present in arguments";
} # OUTPUT: «Verbose option not present in arguments␤»


Type relations for Mu
raku-type-graph Mu Mu Junction Junction Junction->Mu Any Any Any->Mu

Expand chart above