class Code is Any does Callable {}

Code is the ultimate base class of all code objects in Raku. It exposes functionality that all code objects have. While thunks are directly of type Code, most code objects (such as those resulting from blocks, subroutines or methods) will belong to some subclass of Code.


method ACCEPTS§

multi method ACCEPTS(Code:D: Mu $topic)

Usually calls the code object and passes $topic as an argument. However, when called on a code object that takes no arguments, the code object is invoked with no arguments and $topic is dropped. The result of the call is returned.

method arity§

method arity(Code:D: --> Int:D)

Returns the minimum number of positional arguments that must be passed in order to call the code object. Any optional or slurpy parameters in the code object's Signature do not contribute, nor do named parameters.

sub argless() { }
sub args($a$b?{ }
sub slurpy($a$b*@c{ }
say &argless.arity;             # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say &args.arity;                # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say &slurpy.arity;              # OUTPUT: «2␤»

method assuming§

method assuming(Callable:D $self: |primers)

Returns a new Callable that has been primed with the arguments passed to assuming. In other words, the new function implements the same behavior as the original, but has the values passed to .assuming already bound to the corresponding parameters.

my sub slow($n){ my $i = 0$i++ while $i < $n$i };
# takes only one parameter and as such wont forward $n 
sub bench(&c){ cnow - ENTER now };
say &slow.assuming(10000000).&bench# OUTPUT: «(10000000 7.5508834)␤»

For a sub with arity greater than one, you can use Whatever * for all of the positional parameters that are not "assumed".

sub first-and-last ( $first$last ) {
    say "Name is $first $last";
my &surname-smith = &first-and-last.assuming*'Smith' );
&surname-smith.'Joe' ); # OUTPUT: «Name is Joe Smith␤»

You can handle any combination of assumed and not assumed positional parameters:

sub longer-names ( $first$middle$last$suffix ) {
    say "Name is $first $middle $last $suffix";
my &surname-public = &longer-names.assuming**'Public'* );
&surname-public.'Joe''Q.''Jr.'); # OUTPUT: «Name is Joe Q. Public Jr.␤» 

Named parameters can be assumed as well:

sub foo { say "$^a $^b $:foo $:bar" }
&foo.assuming(13:42foo)(24:72bar); # OUTPUT: «13 24 42 72␤»

And you can use .assuming on all types of Callables, including Methods and Blocks:

# We use a Whatever star for the invocant: 
my &comber = Str.^lookup('comb').assuming: *, /\w+/;
say comber 'Perl is awesome! Python is great! And PHP is OK too';
# OUTPUT: «(Perl Python PHP)␤» 
my &learner = {
    "It took me $:months months to learn $^lang"
}.assuming: 'Raku';
say learner :6months;  # OUTPUT: «It took me 6 months to learn Raku␤»

method count§

method count(Code:D: --> Real:D)

Returns the maximum number of positional arguments that may be passed when calling the code object. For code objects that can accept any number of positional arguments (that is, they have a slurpy parameter), count will return Inf. Named parameters do not contribute.

sub argless() { }
sub args($a$b?{ }
sub slurpy($a$b*@c{ }
say &argless.count;             # OUTPUT: «0␤» 
say &args.count;                # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
say &slurpy.count;              # OUTPUT: «Inf␤»

method of§

method of(Code:D: --> Mu)

Returns the return type constraint of the Code:

say -> () --> Int {}.of# OUTPUT: «(Int)␤»

method signature§

multi method signature(Code:D: --> Signature:D)

Returns the Signature object for this code object, which describes its parameters.

sub a(Int $oneStr $two{};
say &a.signature# OUTPUT: «(Int $one, Str $two)␤»

method cando§

method cando(Capture $c)

Returns a list of candidates that can be called with the given Capture. Since Code objects do not have any multiple dispatch, this either returns a list with the object, or an empty list.

my $single = \'a';         # a single argument Capture 
my $plural = \('a'42);   # a two argument Capture 
my &block = { say $^a };   # a Block object, that is a subclass of Code, taking one argument 
say &block.cando($single); # OUTPUT: «(-> $a { #`(Block|94212856419136) ... })␤» 
say &block.cando($plural); # OUTPUT: «()␤»

method Str§

multi method Str(Code:D: --> Str:D)

Will output the method name, but also produce a warning. Use .raku or .gist instead.

sub marine() { }
say ~&marine;
# OUTPUT: «Sub object coerced to string (please use .gist or .raku to do that)␤marine␤» 
say &marine.Str;
# OUTPUT: «Sub object coerced to string (please use .gist or .raku to do that)␤marine␤» 
say &marine.raku# OUTPUT: «sub marine { #`(Sub|94280758332168) ... }␤»

method file§

method file(Code:D: --> Str:D)

Returns the name of the file in which the code object was declared.

say &infix:<+>.file;   # OUTPUT: «SETTING::src/core.c/Numeric.rakumod␤»

method line§

method line(Code:D: --> Int:D)

Returns the line number in the source code at which the code object's declaration begins.

say &infix:<+>.line;   # OUTPUT: «208␤»

If the code object was generated automatically (and thus not declared in the source code), then line returns the line on which the enclosing scope's declaration begins. For example, when called on an automatically generated accessor method produced by the has $.name syntax, line returns the line on which the method's class's declaration begins.

For example, if you have the following source file:

class Food {                # Line 1 
    has $.ingredients;      # Line 2 
                            # Line 3 
    method eat {};          # Line 4 
}                           # Line 5

Then the line method would give you the following output:

say Food.^lookup('eat').line;          # OUTPUT: «4␤» 
say Food.^lookup('ingredients').line;  # OUTPUT: «1␤» 

method bytecode-size§

method bytecode-size(--> Int:D)

Note: this method has been available in Rakudo compiler on the MoarVM backend only, starting from 2022.06 release.

Returns the number of bytes that the code object occupies in memory. Note that if the code object is in fact a multi, then the bytecode size will be reported for the proto. You can use the .candidates method to obtain each candidate, and then call the bytecode-size methods on them.

say &grep.bytecode-size;              # OUTPUT: «114␤» 
say &grep.cadidates>>.bytecode-size;  # OUTPUT: «424␤258␤»

method is-implementation-detail§

method is-implementation-detail(--> False)

Note: this method has been available in Rakudo compiler starting from 2020.05 release.

Returns True if the code object was marked with is implementation-detail trait, False otherwise.


Type relations for Code
raku-type-graph Code Code Any Any Code->Any Callable Callable Code->Callable Mu Mu Any->Mu Block Block Block->Code WhateverCode WhateverCode WhateverCode->Code Routine Routine Routine->Block Submethod Submethod Submethod->Routine Sub Sub Sub->Routine Macro Macro Macro->Routine Method Method Method->Routine Regex Regex Regex->Method

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