class Attribute { }

In Raku lingo, an attribute refers to a per-instance/object storage slot. An Attribute is used to talk about classes' and roles' attributes at the metalevel.

Normal usage of attributes does not require the user to use this class explicitly.


Trait is default§

An attribute that is assigned Nil will revert to its default value set with the trait is default. In the case of arrays or associatives, the argument of is default will set the default item value or hash value.

class C {
    has $.a is default(42is rw = 666
my $c =;
say $c;
$c.a = Nil;
say $c;
# OUTPUT: « => 666)␤ => 42)␤» 
class Foo {
    has is default(42is rw
my $foo = Foo.newbar => <a b c> );
$ =Nil;
say $foo# OUTPUT: « => [42])␤»

Trait is required§

multi trait_mod:<is> (Attribute $attr:$required!)

The trait is required will mark the attribute as to be filled with a value when the object is instantiated. Failing to do so will result in a runtime error.

class C {
    has $.a is required
my $c =;
CATCH{ default { say .^name''.Str } }
# OUTPUT: «X::Attribute::Required: The attribute '$!a' is required, but you did not provide a value for it.␤»

This trait also allows attributes to be typed with types that have a :D smiley without giving them a default value:

class Power {
    has Numeric:D $.base     is required;
    has Numeric:D $.exponent is required;
    multi method Numeric(::?CLASS:D: --> Numeric:D{
        $!base ** $!exponent

Available as of 6.d language version (early implementation exists in Rakudo compiler 2018.08+): You can specify a reason why the attribute is required:

class D {
    has $.a is required("it is a good idea");
my $d =;
CATCH{ default { say .^name''.Str } }
# OUTPUT: «X::Attribute::Required: The attribute '$!a' is required because it is a good idea,␤but you did not provide a value for it.␤» 

is required doesn't just affect the default constructor, it checks for the attribute at a lower level, so it will work for custom constructors written using bless.

trait is DEPRECATED§

multi trait_mod:<is>(Attribute:D $r:$DEPRECATED!)

Marks an attribute as deprecated, optionally with a message what to use instead.

class C {
    has $.foo is DEPRECATED("'bar'");
my $c = C.newfoo => 42 );  # doesn't trigger with initialization (yet) 
say $;                  # does trigger on usage

After the program is finished, this will show something like this on STDERR:

# Saw 1 occurrence of deprecated code. 
# ===================================== 
# Method foo (from C) seen at: 
# script.raku, line 5 
# Please use 'bar' instead.

trait is rw§

multi trait_mod:<is> (Attribute:D $attr:$rw!)

Marks an attribute as read/write as opposed to the default readonly. The default accessor for the attribute will return a writable value.

class Boo {
   has $.bar is rw;
   has $.baz;
my $boo =;
$ = 42# works 
$boo.baz = 42;
CATCH { default { put .^name''.Str } };
# OUTPUT: «X::Assignment::RO: Cannot modify an immutable Any␤»

trait is built§

multi trait_mod:<is>(Attribute:D $a:$built!)

By default, this trait allows setting up a private attribute during object construction via .new. The same trait can be used to prevent setting up a public attribute via .new by passing it the Boolean value False.

class Foo {
    has $!bar is built# same as `is built(True)` 
    has $.baz is built(False);
    method bar {
my $foo = => 1baz => 2);
say $ OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say $foo.baz# OUTPUT: «Any␤»

Available as of the 2020.01 release of the Rakudo compiler.


The usual way to obtain an object of type Attribute is by introspection:

class Useless {
    has @!things;
my $a = Useless.^attributes(:local)[0];
say $a.raku;            # OUTPUT: «␤» 
say $;            # OUTPUT: «@!things␤» 
say $a.package;         # OUTPUT: «(Useless)␤» 
say $a.has_accessor;    # OUTPUT: «False␤»

Modifying a private attribute from the outside is usually not possible, but since Attribute is at the level of the metaclass, all is fair game.

method name§

method name(Attribute:D: --> Str:D)

Returns the name of the attribute. Note that this is always the private name, so if an attribute is declared as has $.a, the name returned is $!a.

class Foo {
    has @!bar;
my $a = Foo.^attributes(:local)[0];
say $;            # OUTPUT: «@!bar␤»

method package§

method package()

Returns the package (class/grammar/role) to which this attribute belongs.

class Boo {
    has @!baz;
my $a = Boo.^attributes(:local)[0];
say $a.package;         # OUTPUT: «(Boo)␤»

method has_accessor§

method has_accessor(Attribute:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True if the attribute has a public accessor method.

class Container {
    has $!private;
    has $.public;
my $private = Container.^attributes(:local)[0];
my $public = Container.^attributes(:local)[1];
say $private.has_accessor# OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say $public.has_accessor;  # OUTPUT: «True␤»

method rw§

method rw(Attribute:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for attributes that have the "is rw" trait applied to them.

class Library {
    has $.address# Read-only value 
    has is rw;
my $addr = Library.^attributes(:local)[0];
my $new-books = Library.^attributes(:local)[1];
say $;      # OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say $ OUTPUT: «True␤»

method readonly§

method readonly(Attribute:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True for readonly attributes, which is the default, or False for attributes marked as is rw.

class Library {
    has $.address# Read-only value 
    has is rw;
my $addr = Library.^attributes(:local)[0];
my $new-books = Library.^attributes(:local)[1];
say $addr.readonly;      # OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say $new-books.readonly# OUTPUT: «False␤»

method required§

method required(Attribute:D: --> Any:D)

Returns 1 for attributes that have the "is required" trait applied, or Mu if the attribute did not have that trait applied. If the "is required" trait is applied with a string, then that string will be returned instead of 1.

class Library {
    has $.address is required;
    has is required("we always need more books");
my $addr = Library.^attributes(:local)[0];
my $new-books = Library.^attributes(:local)[1];
say $addr.required;      # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say $new-books.readonly# OUTPUT: «"we always need more books"␤»

method type§

method type(Attribute:D: --> Mu)

Returns the type constraint of the attribute.

class TypeHouse {
    has Int @.array;
    has $!scalar;
    has @.mystery;
my @types = TypeHouse.^attributes(:local)[0..2];
for 0..2 { say @types[$_].type }
# OUTPUT: «(Positional[Int]) 
# (Mu) 
# (Positional)␤»

method get_value§

method get_value(Mu $obj)

Returns the value stored in this attribute of object $obj.

class Violated {
    has $!private-thing = 5;
my $private = Violated.^attributes(:local)[0];
say $private.get_value(; # OUTPUT: «5␤»

Note that this method violates encapsulation of the object, and should be used with care. Here be dragons.

method set_value§

method set_value(Mu $objMu \new_val)

Binds the value new_val to this attribute of object $obj.

class A {
    has $!a = 5;
    method speak() { say $!a}
my $attr = A.^attributes(:local)[0];
my $a =;
$a.speak# OUTPUT: «5␤» 
$a.speak# OUTPUT: «42␤»

Note that this method violates encapsulation of the object, and should be used with care. Here be dragons.

method gist§

multi method gist(Attribute:D:)

Returns the name of the type followed by the name of the attribute.

class Hero {
    has @!inventory;
    has Str $.name;
    submethod BUILD:$name:@inventory ) {
        $!name = $name;
        @!inventory = @inventory
say Hero.^attributes(:local)[0]; # OUTPUT: «Positional @!inventory␤» 

Since say implicitly calls .gist, that is what produces the output here.

Optional introspection§


If an attribute is marked as DEPRECATED, then calling the DEPRECATED method is possible and will return "something else" (if no specific reason was specified) or the string that was specified with the DEPRECATED trait.

If an attribute is not marked as DEPRECATED, one cannot call the DEPRECATED method. Therefore, the .?method syntax should be used.

class Hangout {
    has $.table;
    has $.bar is DEPRECATED("the patio");
my $attr-table = Hangout.^attributes(:local)[0];
my $attr-bar = Hangout.^attributes(:local)[1];
with $attr-table.?DEPRECATED -> $text {     # does not trigger 
    say "Table is deprecated with '$text'";
    # OUTPUT: 
with $attr-bar.?DEPRECATED -> $text {
    say "Bar is deprecated with '$text'";
    # OUTPUT: «Bar is deprecated with 'the patio'"␤» 


Type relations for Attribute
raku-type-graph Attribute Attribute Any Any Attribute->Any Mu Mu Any->Mu

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