routine push

Documentation for routine push assembled from the following types:

class Any

From Any

(Any) method push

Defined as:

multi method push(Any:U \SELF: |values --> Positional:D)

The method push is defined for undefined invocants and allows for autovivifying undefined to an empty Array, unless the undefined value implements Positional already. The argument provided will then be pushed into the newly created Array.

my %h;
say %h<a>;     # OUTPUT: «(Any)␤»      <-- Undefined 
%h<a>.push(1); # .push on Any 
say %h;        # OUTPUT: «{a => [1]}␤» <-- Note the Array

language documentation Independent routines

From Independent routines

(Independent routines) sub push

Defined as:

multi sub push(\a, \b)
multi sub push(\a**@b)

Probably best thought of as a simple:

sub push(\a**@b)

Calls method push on container a which is supposed to add b or the values in |@b to the end of an array. If b is a Slip, the container is supposed to add the values produced by b.iterator.

See the documentation of the Hash method for an example where the subroutine form is useful.

class Nil

From Nil

(Nil) method push

method push(*@)

Warns the user that they tried to push onto a Nil or derived type object.

class Array

From Array

(Array) method push

Defined as:

multi method push(Array:D: Slip \value --> Array:D)
multi method push(Array:D: \value --> Array:D)
multi method push(Array:D: **@values is raw --> Array:D)

A subclass that just wants to accept the same arguments as Array can override all candidates with a single:

method push(::?CLASS:D: **@values is raw --> ::?CLASS:D)

The Array class adds the values in the argument list to the end of the array, and returns the modified array. If any argument is a Slip, method push will add the values produced by the argument's iterator. It throws if the invocant array or a Slip is lazy.


my @foo = <a b c>;
@foo.push: 'd';
say @foo;                   # OUTPUT: «[a b c d]␤»

Note that push does not attempt to flatten its argument list. If you pass an array or list as the thing to push, it becomes one additional element:

my @a = <a b c>;
my @b = <d e f>;
@a.push: @b;
say @a.elems;               # OUTPUT: «4␤» 
say @a[3].join;             # OUTPUT: «def␤»

Multiple values are added to the array only if you supply them as separate arguments or in a slip:

my @a = '1';
say @a.push: 'a''b';       # OUTPUT: «[1 a b]␤» 
my @c = <E F>;
say @a.push: @c.Slip;        # OUTPUT: «[1 a b E F]␤»

See method append if you want to append multiple values that are produced by a single non-slipping Iterable.

class Hash

From Hash

(Hash) method push

Defined as:

method push(Hash:D: +new)

Adds the new elements to the hash with the same semantics as hash assignment, but with three exceptions:


my %h  = => 1;
%h.push: (=> 1);              # a => [1,1] 
%h.push: (=> 1xx 3 ;        # a => [1,1,1,1,1] 
%h.push: (=> 3);              # a => [1,1,1,1,1], b => 3 
%h.push('c' => 4);              # a => [1,1,1,1,1], b => 3, c => 4 
push %h'd' => 5;              # a => [1,1,1,1,1], b => 3, c => 4, d => 5

Please note that literal pairs in the argument list may be interpreted as named arguments and as such won't end up in the Hash:

my %h .= push(=> 6);
say %h.raku# OUTPUT: «{}␤»

Use the corresponding subroutine to catch this kind of mistake:

push my %h=> 7;
CATCH { default { put .message } };
# OUTPUT: «Unexpected named argument 'f' passed␤»

Also note that push can be used as a replacement for assignment during hash initialization very useful ways. Take for instance the case of an inverted index:

my %wc = 'hash' => 323'pair' => 322'pipe' => 323;
(my %inv).push: %wc.invert;
say %inv;                     # OUTPUT: «{322 => pair, 323 => [pipe hash]}␤»

Note that such an initialization could also be written as

my %wc = 'hash' => 323'pair' => 322'pipe' => 323;
my %inv .= push: %wc.invert;

Note: Compared to append, push will add the given value as is, whereas append will slip it in:

my %ha = :a[42, ]; %ha.push: "a" => <a b c a>;
say %ha# OUTPUT: «{a => [42 (a b c a)]}␤» 
my %hb = :a[42, ]; %hb.append: "a" => <a b c a>;
say %hb# OUTPUT: «{a => [42 a b c a]}␤»

role Buf

From Buf

(Buf) method push

method push$elems )

Adds elements at the end of the buffer

my @φ =  1,1* + * … ∞;
my $ =φ[^5] );
$.push@φ[5] );
say $.raku# OUTPUT: «,1,2,3,5,8)»