role PredictiveIterator

Iterators that can predict number of values

A PredictiveIterator is a special kind of Iterator that can know how many values it will (still) generate without actually needing to generate those values.

The main addition to the API of the Iterator role, is the count-only method, which should return the number of values the Iterator is still able to generate.

The other addition is the bool-only method, that should return a Bool indicating whether the Iterator is still capable of producing values (aka, is not exhausted yet). By default, this is the Booleanification of the result of the call to the count-only method.

Methods

method count-only

Defined as:

method count-only(--> Int:D{ ... }

It is expected to return the number of values the iterator can still produce without actually producing them. The returned number must adjust itself for items already pulled, so that the method can be called on a partially consumed Iterator.

It will be used in situations where only the number of values of an iterator is needed, e.g. when the .elems method is called.

Important: it's expected the Iterators that implement this method can return that number without producing any values. In other words, it's expected the user of the class will be able to still pull-one after calling this method, and eventually receive as many values as the return value of this method indicated.

method bool-only

Defaults to the Booleanification of the result of calling the count-only method. If it is possible to have a faster way of finding out whether the iterator is capable of producing any value, it should be implemented.

Defined as:

method bool-only(--> Bool:D{ self.count-only.Bool }

Type Graph

Type relations for 404

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Routines supplied by role Iterator

PredictiveIterator does role Iterator, which provides the following routines:

(Iterator) method pull-one

Defined as:

method pull-one(Iterator:D: --> Mu)

This method stub ensures that classes implementing the Iterator role provide a method named pull-one.

The pull-one method is supposed to produce and return the next value if possible, or return the sentinel value IterationEnd if no more values could be produced.

my $i = (1 .. 3).iterator;
say $i.pull-one;       # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
say $i.pull-one;       # OUTPUT: «2␤» 
say $i.pull-one;       # OUTPUT: «3␤» 
say $i.pull-one.perl;  # OUTPUT: «IterationEnd␤»

As a more illustrative example of its use, here is a count down iterator along with a simplistic subroutine re-implementation of the for loop.

# works the same as (10 ... 1, 'lift off') 
class CountDown does Iterator {
    has Int:D $!current = 10;
 
    method pull-one ( --> Mu ) {
        my $result = $!current--;
        if $result ==  0 { return 'lift off' }
        if $result == -1 { return IterationEnd }
 
        # calling .pull-one again after it returns IterationEnd is undefined 
        if $result <= -2 {
            # so for fun we will give them nonsense data 
            return (1..10).pick;
        }
 
        return $result;
    }
}
 
sub forIterable:D $sequence&do --> Nil ) {
    my Iterator:D $iterator = $sequence.iterator;
 
    loop {
        # must bind the result so that =:= works 
        my Mu $pulled := $iterator.pull-one;
 
        # always check the result and make sure that .pull-one 
        # is not called again after it returns IterationEnd 
        if $pulled =:= IterationEnd { last }
 
        do$pulled );
    }
}
 
forSeq.new(CountDown.new), &say );  # OUTPUT: «10␤9␤8␤7␤6␤5␤4␤3␤2␤1␤lift off␤»

It would be more idiomatic to use while or until, and a sigilless variable.

until IterationEnd =:= (my \pulled = $iterator.pull-one{
    dopulled );
}

(Iterator) method push-exactly

Defined as:

method push-exactly(Iterator:D: $targetint $count --> Mu)

Should produce $count elements, and for each of them, call $target.push($value).

If fewer than $count elements are available from the iterator, it should return the sentinel value IterationEnd. Otherwise it should return $count.

my @array;
say (1 .. ∞).iterator.push-exactly(@array3); # OUTPUT: «3␤» 
say @array# OUTPUT: «[1 2 3]␤»

The Iterator role implements this method in terms of pull-one. In general, this is a method that is not intended to be called directly from the end user who, instead, should implement it in classes that mix the iterator role. For instance, this class implements that role:

class DNA does Iterable does Iterator {
    has $.chain;
    has Int $!index = 0;
 
    method new ($chain where {
                       $chain ~~ /^^ <[ACGT]>+ $$ / and
                       $chain.chars %% 3 } ) {
        self.bless:$chain );
    }
 
    method iterator( ){ self }
 
    method pull-one--> Mu){
      if $!index < $.chain.chars {
         my $codon = $.chain.comb.rotor(3)[$!index div 3];
         $!index += 3;
         return $codon;
      } else {
        return IterationEnd;
      }
    }
 
    method push-exactly(Iterator:D: $targetint $count --> Mu{
        return IterationEnd if $.chain.elems / 3 < $count;
        for ^($count{
            $target.push: $.chain.comb.rotor(3)[ $_ ];
        }
    }
 
};
 
my $b := DNA.new("AAGCCT");
for $b -> $a$b$c { say "Never mind" }# Does not enter the loop 
my $þor := DNA.new("CAGCGGAAGCCT");
for $þor -> $first$second {
    say "Coupled codons: $first$second";
    # OUTPUT: «Coupled codons: C A G, C G G␤Coupled codons: A A G, C C T␤» 
}

This code, which groups DNA chains in triplets (usually called codons) returns those codons when requested in a loop; if too many are requested, like in the first case for $b -> $a, $b, $c, it simply does not enter the loop since push-exactly will return IterationEnd since it is not able to serve the request for exactly 3 codons. In the second case, however, it requests exactly two codons in each iteration of the loop; push-exactly is being called with the number of loop variables as the $count variable.

(Iterator) method push-at-least

Defined as:

method push-at-least(Iterator:D: $targetint $count --> Mu)

Should produce at least $count elements, and for each of them, call $target.push($value).

If fewer than $count elements are available from the iterator, it should return the sentinel value IterationEnd. Otherwise it should return $count.

Iterators with side effects should produce exactly $count elements; iterators without side effects (such as Range iterators) can produce more elements to achieve better performance.

my @array;
say (1 .. ∞).iterator.push-at-least(@array10); # OUTPUT: «10␤» 
say @array# OUTPUT: «[1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10]␤»

The Iterator role implements this method in terms of pull-one. In general, it is also not intended to be called directly as in the example above. It can be implemented, if unhappy with this default implementation, by those using this role. See the documentation for push-exactly for an example implementation.

(Iterator) method push-all

Defined as:

method push-all(Iterator:D: $target)

Should produce all elements from the iterator and push them to $target.

my @array;
say (1 .. 1000).iterator.push-all(@array); # All 1000 values are pushed

The Iterator role implements this method in terms of push-at-least. As in the case of the other push-* methods, it is mainly intended for developers implementing this role. push-all is called when assigning an object with this role to an array, for instance, like in this example:

class DNA does Iterable does Iterator {
    has $.chain;
    has Int $!index = 0;
 
    method new ($chain where {
                       $chain ~~ /^^ <[ACGT]>+ $$ / and
                       $chain.chars %% 3 } ) {
        self.bless:$chain );
    }
 
    method iterator( ){ self }
    method pull-one--> Mu){
      if $!index < $.chain.chars {
         my $codon = $.chain.comb.rotor(3)[$!index div 3];
         $!index += 3;
         return $codon;
      } else {
        return IterationEnd;
      }
    }
 
    method push-all(Iterator:D: $target{
        for $.chain.comb.rotor(3-> $codon {
            $target.push: $codon;
        }
    }
 
};
 
my $b := DNA.new("AAGCCT");
my @dna-array = $b;
say @dna-array# OUTPUT: «[(A A G) (C C T)]␤» 

The push-all method implemented pushes to the target iterator in lists of three aminoacid representations; this is called under the covers when we assign $b to @dna-array.

(Iterator) method push-until-lazy

Defined as:

method push-until-lazy(Iterator:D: $target --> Mu)

Should produce values until it considers itself to be lazy, and push them onto $target.

The Iterator role implements this method as a no-op if is-lazy returns a True value, or as a synonym of push-all if not.

This matters mostly for iterators that have other iterators embedded, some of which might be lazy, while others aren't.

(Iterator) method is-lazy

Defined as:

method is-lazy(Iterator:D: --> Bool:D)

Should return True for iterators that consider themselves lazy, and False otherwise.

Built-in operations that know that they can produce infinitely many values return True here, for example (1..6).roll(*).

say (1 .. 100).is-lazy# OUTPUT: «False␤» 
say (1 .. ∞).is-lazy# OUTPUT: «True␤»

The Iterator role implements this method returning False, indicating a non-lazy iterator.

(Iterator) method sink-all

Defined as:

method sink-all(Iterator:D: --> IterationEnd)

Should exhaust the iterator purely for the side-effects of producing the values, without actually saving them in any way. Should always return IterationEnd. If there are no side-effects associated with producing a value, then it can be implemented by a consuming class to be a virtual no-op.

say (1 .. 1000).iterator.sink-all;  # OUTPUT: «IterationEnd␤»

The Iterator role implements this method as a loop that calls pull-one until it is exhausted.

(Iterator) method skip-one

Defined as:

method skip-one(Iterator:D: $target --> Mu)

Should skip producing one value. The return value should be truthy if the skip was successful and falsy if there were no values to be skipped:

my $i = <a b>.iterator;
say $i.skip-onesay $i.pull-onesay $i.skip-one
# OUTPUT: «1␤b␤0␤»

The Iterator role implements this method as a call pull-one and returning whether the value obtained was not IterationEnd.

(Iterator) method skip-at-least

Defined as:

method skip-at-least(Iterator:D: $targetint $to-skip --> Mu)

Should skip producing $to-skip values. The return value should be truthy if the skip was successful and falsy if there were not enough values to be skipped:

my $i = <a b c>.iterator;
say $i.skip-at-least(2); say $i.pull-onesay $i.skip-at-least(20);
# OUTPUT: «1␤c␤0␤»

The Iterator role implements this method as a loop calling skip-one and returning whether it returned a truthy value sufficient number of times.

(Iterator) method skip-at-least-pull-one

Defined as:

method skip-at-least-pull-one(Iterator:D: $targetint $to-skip --> Mu)

Should skip producing $to-skip values and if the iterator is still not exhausted, produce and return the next value. Should return IterationEnd if the iterator got exhausted at any point:

my $i = <a b c>.iterator;
say $i.skip-at-least-pull-one(2);
say $i.skip-at-least-pull-one(20=:= IterationEnd;
# OUTPUT: «c␤True␤»

The Iterator role implements this method as calling skip-at-least and then calling pull-one if it was not exhausted yet.