class Capture { }

A Capture is a container for passing arguments to a code object. Captures are the flip-side of Signatures. Thus, captures are the caller-defined arguments, while signatures are the callee-defined parameters. For example when you call print $a, $b, the $a, $b part is a capture.

Captures contain a list-like part for positional arguments and a hash-like part for named arguments, thus behaving as Positional and Associative, although it does not actually mix in those roles. Like any other data structure, a stand-alone capture can be created, stored, and used later.

A literal Capture can be created by prefixing a term with a backslash \. Commonly, this term will be a List of terms, from which the forms key => value and :key<value> of a Pair literal will be placed in the named part, and all other terms will be placed in the positional part (including Pairs of the form 'key' => value).

my $a = \(42);                      # Capture with one positional arg 
my $b = \(12verbose => True);   # Capture with two positional args and one named arg 
my $c = \(12:verbose(True));    # same as before 
my $c = \(12'verbose' => True); # Capture with three positional args

To reiterate, named arguments in a capture must be created using one of two ways:

  • Use an unquoted key naming a parameter, followed by =>, followed by the argument. For example, as => by => {1/$_}.

  • Use a colon-pair literal named after the parameter. For example, :into(my %leap-years).

For example:

sub greet(:$name:$age{
my $d = \(name => 'Mugen'age => 19);   # OK 
my $e = \(:name('Jin'), :age(20));       # OK 
my $f = \('name' => 'Fuu''age' => 15); # Not OK, keys are quoted.

For the greet subroutine that accepts two named arguments name and age, the captures $d and $e will work fine while the capture $f will throw a Too many positionals passed... error. This is because 'age' => 20 isn't a named argument (as per the two ways of creating one mentioned above) but a positional argument of which greet expects none. In the context of captures, quoted keys don't create named arguments. Any 'key' => value is just another positional parameter, thus exercise some caution when creating captures with named arguments.

Once a capture is created, you may use it by prefixing it with a vertical bar | in a subroutine call, and it will be as if the values in the capture were passed directly to the subroutine as arguments — named arguments will be passed as named arguments and positional arguments will be passed as positional arguments. You may re-use the capture as many times as you want, even with different subroutines.

say greet |$d;                # OUTPUT: «Mugen, 19␤» 
say greet |$e;                # OUTPUT: «Jin, 20␤» 
my $x = \(423-2);
say reverse |$x;              # OUTPUT: «(-2 3 2 4)␤» 
say sort 5|$x;              # OUTPUT: «(-2 2 3 4 5)␤» 
say unique |$xas => {.abs}# OUTPUT: «(4 2 3)␤» 
say unique |$x:as({.abs});  # OUTPUT: «(4 2 3)␤» 
my $y = \(173by => {1/$_});
say min |$y;                  # OUTPUT: «7␤», same as min 1, 7, 3, by => {1/$_} 
say max |$y;                  # OUTPUT: «1␤», same as max 1, 7, 3, by => {1/$_}

Inside a Signature, a Capture may be created by prefixing a sigilless parameter with a vertical bar |. This packs the remainder of the argument list into that capture parameter.

sub f($a|c{
    say $a;
    say c;
    say c.^name;
    say c.list# see Methods section 
    say c.hash# see Methods section 
f 123=> 4:b(5);
# 1 
# \(2, 3, :a(4), :b(5)) 
# Capture 
# (2 3) 
# => 4, b => 5))

Note that Captures are still Lists in that they may contain containers, not just literal values:

my $b = 1;
my $c = \(42$b3);
say min |$c;        # OUTPUT: «1␤» 
$b = -5;
say min |$c;        # OUTPUT: «-5␤»


method list§

method list(Capture:D:)

Returns the positional part of the Capture.

my Capture $c = \(235apples => (red => 2));
say $c.list# OUTPUT: «(2 3 5)␤»

method hash§

method hash(Capture:D:)

Returns the named/hash part of the Capture.

my Capture $c = \(235apples => (red => 2));
say $c.hash# OUTPUT: «␤»

method elems§

method elems(Capture:D: --> Int:D)

Returns the number of positional elements in the Capture.

my Capture $c = \(235apples => (red => 2));
say $c.elems# OUTPUT: «3␤»

method keys§

multi method keys(Capture:D: --> Seq:D)

Returns a Seq containing all positional keys followed by all named keys. For positional arguments the keys are the respective arguments ordinal position starting from zero.

my $capture = \(235apples => (red => 2));
say $capture.keys# OUTPUT: «(0 1 2 apples)␤»

method values§

multi method values(Capture:D: --> Seq:D)

Returns a Seq containing all positional values followed by all named argument values.

my $capture = \(235apples => (red => 2));
say $capture.values# OUTPUT: «(2 3 5 red => 2)␤»

method kv§

multi method kv(Capture:D: --> Seq:D)

Returns a Seq of alternating keys and values. The positional keys and values, if any, comes first followed by the named keys and values.

my $capture = \(23apples => (red => 2));
say $capture.kv# OUTPUT: «(0 2 1 3 apples red => 2)␤»

method pairs§

multi method pairs(Capture:D: --> Seq:D)

Returns all arguments, the positional followed by the named, as a Seq of Pairs. Positional arguments have their respective ordinal value, starting at zero, as key while the named arguments have their names as key.

my Capture $c = \(23apples => (red => 2));
say $c.pairs# OUTPUT: «(0 => 2 1 => 3 apples => red => 2)␤»

method antipairs§

multi method antipairs(Capture:D: --> Seq:D)

Returns all arguments, the positional followed by the named, as a Seq of pairs where the keys and values have been swapped, i.e. the value becomes the key and the key becomes the value. This behavior is the opposite of the pairs method.

my $capture = \(23apples => (red => 2));
say $capture.antipairs# OUTPUT: «(2 => 0 3 => 1 (red => 2) => apples)␤»

method Bool§

method Bool(Capture:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns True if the Capture contains at least one named or one positional argument.

say \(1,2,3apples => 2).Bool# OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say \().Bool;                   # OUTPUT: «False␤»

method Capture§

method Capture(Capture:D: --> Capture:D)

Returns itself, i.e. the invocant.

say \(1,2,3apples => 2).Capture# OUTPUT: «\(1, 2, 3, :apples(2))␤»

method Numeric§

method Numeric(Capture:D: --> Int:D)

Returns the number of positional elements in the Capture.

say \(1,2,3apples => 2).Numeric# OUTPUT: «3␤»


Type relations for Capture
raku-type-graph Capture Capture Any Any Capture->Any Mu Mu Any->Mu Cool Cool Cool->Any Match Match Match->Capture Match->Cool Grammar Grammar Grammar->Match

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