class IO::Path

File or directory path

IO::Path is the workhorse of IO operations.

Conceptually, an IO::Path object consists of a volume, a directory, and a basename. It supports both purely textual operations, and operations that access the filesystem, e.g. to resolve a path, or to read all the content of a file.

attribute path

Read-only. Returns the string the object was constructed from or the value of $SPEC.join($volume, $dirname,$basename) if multi-part version of .new was used. NOTE: this does not include the $.CWD; see IO::Path.absolute and IO::Path.relative for stringification options that include $.CWD.

NOTE: Implementations may cache operations done with this attribute, so modifying its value (via cloning or Proxy) is NOT recommended and may result in broken IO::Path objects. Create a new IO::Path object instead.

method ACCEPTS

Defined as:

Coerces the argument to IO::Path, if necessary. Returns True if .absolute method on both paths returns the same string. NOTE: it's possible for two paths that superficially point to the same resource to NOT smartmatch as True, if they were constructed differently and were never fully resolved:

The reason is the two paths above may point to different resources when fully resolved (e.g. if foo is a symlink). Resolve the paths before smartmatching to check they point to same resource:

method basename

Defined as:

Returns the basename part of the path object, which is the name of the filesystem object itself that is referenced by the path.

Note that in IO::Spec::Win32 semantics, the basename of a Windows share is \, not the name of the share itself:

Defined as:

Concatenates a path fragment to the invocant and returns the resultant IO::Path. If adding ../ to paths that end with a file, you may need to call resolve for the resultant path to be accessible by other IO::Path methods like dir or open. See also sibling and parent.

method child

Defined as:

Alias for .add.

method cleanup

Defined as:

Returns a new path that is a canonical representation of the invocant path, cleaning up any extraneous path parts:

Note that no filesystem access is made. See also resolve.

method comb

Defined as:

Opens the file and processes its contents the same way Str.comb does, taking the same arguments. Implementations may slurp the file in its entirety when this method is called.

method split

Defined as:

Opens the file and processes its contents the same way Str.split does, taking the same arguments. Implementations may slurp the file in its entirety when this method is called.

method extension

Defined as:

Returns the extension consisting of $parts parts (defaults to 1), where a "part" is defined as a dot followed by possibly-empty string up to the end of the string, or previous part. That is "foo.tar.gz" has an extension of two parts: first part is "gz" and second part is "tar" and calling "foo.tar.gz".IO.extension: :2parts gives "tar.gz". If an extension with the specified number of $parts is not found, returns an empty string.

$parts can be a Range, specifying the minimum number of parts and maximum number of parts the extension should have. The routine will attempt to much the most parts it can. If $parts range's endpoints that are smaller than 0 they'll be treated as 0; implementations may treat endpoints larger than 2⁶³-1 as 2⁶³-1. Ranges with NaN or Str endpoints will cause an exception to be thrown.

method gist

Defined as:

Returns a string, part of which contains either the value of .absolute (if path is absolute) or .path. Note that no escaping of special characters is made, so e.g. "\b" means a path contains a backslash and letter "b", not a backspace.

Defined as:

method relative

Defined as:

Returns a new Str object with the path relative to the $base. If $base is not provided, $*CWD is used in its place. If the invocant is not an absolute path, it's first made to be absolute using the .CWD attribute the object was created with, and then is made relative to $base.

method parent

Defined as:

Returns the parent path of the invocant. Note that no actual filesystem access is made, so the returned parent is physical and not the logical parent of symlinked directories.

If $level is specified, the call is equivalent to calling .parent() $level times:

method resolve

Defined as:

Returns a new IO::Path object with all symbolic links and references to the parent directory (..) resolved. This means that the filesystem is examined for each directory in the path, and any symlinks found are followed.

If :$completely, which defaults to False, is set to a true value, the method will fail with X::IO::Resolve if it cannot completely resolve the path, otherwise, it will resolve as much as possible, and will merely perform cleanup of the rest of the path. The last part of the path does NOT have to exist to :$completely resolve the path.

NOTE: Currently (April 2017) this method doesn't work correctly on all platforms, e.g. Windows, since resolve assumes POSIX semantics.

routine dir

Defined as:

Returns the contents of a directory as a lazy list of IO::Path objects representing relative paths, filtered by smartmatching their names (as strings) against the :test parameter. The path of returned files will be absolute or relative depending on what $path is. Since the tests are performed against Str arguments, not IO, the tests are executed in the $*CWD, instead of the target directory. When testing against file test operators, this won't work:

while this will:

NOTE: a dir call opens a directory for reading, which counts towards maximum per-process open files for your program. Be sure to exhaust returned Seq before doing something like recursively performing more dir calls. You can exhaust it by assigning to a @-sigiled variable or simply looping over it. Note how examples below push further dirs to look through into an Array, rather than immediately calling dir on them. See also IO::Dir module that gives you finer control over closing dir handles.

Examples:

An example program that lists all files and directories recursively:

A lazy way to find the first three files ending in ".p6" recursively starting from the current directory:

File test operators

For most file tests, you can do a smartmatch ~~ or you can call a method. You don't need to actually open a filehandle in the traditional way (although you can) to do a filetest. You can simply append .IO to the filename and smartmatch it to a test adverb. For instance, here is how to check whether a file is readable using smartmatch:

File tests include:

These tests will not cache the results of earlier test executions.

Smartmatching on Pairs can be used to perform multiple tests at once:

All of the above tests can be used as methods (without the colon), though method tests may throw X::IO::DoesNotExist as documented below. Three tests only exist as methods: accessed, changed and modified.

method spurt

Defined as:

Opens the path for writing, and writes all of the $data into it. File will be closed afterwards. Will fail if it cannot succeed for any reason. The $data can be any Cool type or any Blob type. Arguments are as follows:

• :$enc — character encoding of the data. Takes same values as :$enc in IO::Handle.open. Defaults to utf8. Ignored if $data is a Blob. • :$append — open the file in append mode, preserving existing contents, and appending data to the end of the file.

method mkdir

Defined as:

Creates a new directory, including its parent directories, as needed (similar to *nix utility mkdir with -p option). That is, mkdir "foo/bar/ber/meow" will create foo, foo/bar, and foo/bar/ber directories as well if they do not exist.

Returns the IO::Path object pointing to the newly created directory on success; fails with X::IO::Mkdir if directory cannot be created.

See also mode for explanation and valid values for $mode. routine rmdir Defined as: Remove the invocant, or in sub form, all of the provided directories in the given list, which can contain any Cool object. Only works on empty directories. Method form returns True on success and returns a Failure of type X::IO::Rmdir if the directory cannot be removed (e.g. the directory is not empty, or the path is not a directory). Subroutine form returns a list of directories that were successfully deleted. To delete non-empty directory, see rmtree in File::Directory::Tree module. method chmod Defined as: Changes the POSIX permissions of a file or directory to $mode. Returns True on success; on failure, fails with X::IO::Chmod.

The mode is expected as an integer following the standard numeric notation, and is best written as an octal number:

Make sure you don't accidentally pass the intended octal digits as a decimal number (or string containing a decimal number):

routine rename

Defined as:

Renames a file or directory. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Rename if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason.

Note: some renames will always fail, such as when the new name is on a different storage device. See also: move.

routine copy

Defined as:

Copies a file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Copy if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file.

routine move

Defined as:

Copies a file and then removes the original. If removal fails, it's possible to end up with two copies of the file. Returns True on success; fails with X::IO::Move if :$createonly is True and the $to path already exists or if the operation failed for some other reason, such as when $to and $from are the same file.

To avoid copying, you can use rename, if the files are on the same storage device. It also works with directories, while move does not.

method Numeric

Defined as:

Coerces .basename to Numeric. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical.

method Int

Defined as:

Coerces .basename to Int. Fails with X::Str::Numeric if base name is not numerical.

Defined as:

(Cool) routine sqrt

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Numeric (or in the sub form, the argument) and returns the square root, that is, a non-negative number that, when multiplied with itself, produces the original number.

(Cool) method sign

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Numeric and returns its sign, that is, 0 if the number is 0, 1 for positive and -1 for negative values.

(Cool) method rand

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Num and returns a pseudo-random value between zero and the number.

(Cool) routine sin

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its sine.

Note that Raku is no computer algebra system, so sin(pi) typically does not produce an exact 0, but rather a very small floating-point number.

(Cool) routine asin

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-sine in radians.

(Cool) routine cos

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its cosine.

(Cool) routine acos

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-cosine in radians.

(Cool) routine tan

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, interprets it as radians, returns its tangent.

(Cool) routine atan

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the argument) to Numeric, and returns its arc-tangent in radians.

(Cool) routine atan2

Defined as:

The sub should usually be written with two arguments for clarity as it is seen in other languages and in mathematical texts, but the single-argument form is available; its result will always match that of atan.

The method coerces self and its single argument to Numeric, using them to compute the two-argument arc-tangent in radians.

(Cool) routine log10

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the invocant) to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base 10, that is, a number that approximately produces the original number when raised to the power of 10. Returns NaN for negative arguments and -Inf for 0.

(Cool) method log2

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Numeric, and returns its Logarithm to base 2, that is, a number that approximately produces the original number when raised to the power of 2. Returns NaN for negative arguments and -Inf for 0.

(Cool) routine exp

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method from) to Numeric, and returns $base raised to the power of the first number. If no $base is supplied, e (Euler's Number) is used.

(Cool) method unpolar

Defined as:

Coerces the arguments (including the invocant in the method form) to Numeric, and returns a complex number from the given polar coordinates. The invocant (or the first argument in sub form) is the magnitude while the argument (i.e. the second argument in sub form) is the angle. The angle is assumed to be in radians.

(Cool) routine round

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it to the unit of $scale. If $scale is 1, rounds to the nearest integer; an arbitrary scale will result in the closest multiple of that number.

Always rounds up if the number is at mid-point:

Pay attention to types when using this method, as ending up with the wrong type may affect the precision you seek to achieve. For Real types, the type of the result is the type of the argument (Complex argument gets coerced to Real, ending up a Num). If rounding a Complex, the result is Complex as well, regardless of the type of the argument.

(Cool) routine floor

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it downwards to the nearest integer.

Defined as:

Uses $format to return a formatted representation of the invocant; equivalent to calling sprintf with $format as format and the invocant as the second argument. The $format will be coerced to Stringy and defaults to '%s'. For more information about formats strings, see sprintf. (Cool) routine ceiling Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it upwards to the nearest integer. (Cool) routine truncate Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Numeric, and rounds it towards zero. (Cool) routine ord Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the Unicode code point number of the first code point. The inverse operation is chr. Mnemonic: returns an ordinal number (Cool) method path Defined as: DEPRECATED. It's been deprecated as of the 6.d version. Will be removed in the next ones. Stringifies the invocant and converts it to IO::Path object. Use the .IO method instead. (Cool) routine chr Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Int, interprets it as a Unicode code points, and returns a string made of that code point. The inverse operation is ord. Mnemonic: turns an integer into a character. (Cool) routine chars Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of characters in the string. Please note that on the JVM, you currently get codepoints instead of graphemes. If the string is native, the number of chars will be also returned as a native int. Graphemes are user visible characters. That is, this is what the user thinks of as a “character”. Graphemes can contain more than one codepoint. Typically the number of graphemes and codepoints differs when Prepend or Extend characters are involved (also known as Combining characters), but there are many other cases when this may happen. Another example is \c[ZWJ] (Zero-width joiner). You can check Grapheme_Cluster_Break property of a character in order to see how it is going to behave: You can read more about graphemes in the Unicode Standard, which Raku tightly follows, using a method called NFG, normal form graphemes for efficiently representing them. (Cool) routine codes Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the number of Unicode code points. The same result will be obtained with ords first obtains the actual codepoints, so there might be a difference in speed. (Cool) routine flip Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns a reversed version. (Cool) routine trim Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with both leading and trailing whitespace stripped. (Cool) routine trim-leading Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with leading whitespace stripped. (Cool) routine trim-trailing Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the string with trailing whitespace stripped. (Cool) routine lc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to lower case. (Cool) routine uc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it case-folded to upper case (capital letters). (Cool) routine fc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns the result a Unicode "case fold" operation suitable for doing caseless string comparisons. (In general, the returned string is unlikely to be useful for any purpose other than comparison.) (Cool) routine tc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case). (Cool) routine tclc Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the first letter case-folded to title case (or where not available, upper case), and the rest of the string case-folded to lower case. (Cool) routine wordcase Defined as: Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and filters each word that smartmatches against $where through the &filter. With the default filter (first character to upper case, rest to lower) and matcher (which accepts everything), this title-cases each word:

With a matcher:

With a customer filter too:

(Cool) routine samecase

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.samecase on it.

(Cool) routine uniprop

Defined as:

Returns the unicode property of the first character. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. A uniprops routine can be used to get the property for every character in a string.

(Cool) sub uniprops

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant as a Str, and returns the unicode property for each character as a Seq. If no property is specified returns the General Category. Returns a Bool for Boolean properties. Similar to uniprop, but for each character in the passed string.

(Cool) routine uniname

Defined as:

Interprets the invocant or first argument as a Str, and returns the Unicode codepoint name of the first codepoint of the first character. See uninames for a routine that works with multiple codepoints, and uniparse for the opposite direction.

(Cool) routine uninames

Defined as:

Returns of a Seq of Unicode names for the all the codepoints in the Str provided.

Note this example, which gets a Seq where each element is a Seq of all the codepoints in that character.

See uniparse for the opposite direction.

(Cool) routine unimatch

Defined as:

Checks if the given integer codepoint or the first letter of the given string has a unicode property equal to the value you give. If you supply the Unicode property to be checked it will only return True if that property matches the given value.

The last property corresponds to "lowercase letter", which explains why it returns false.

(Cool) routine chop

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed.

(Cool) routine chomp

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in sub form, its argument) to Str, and returns it with the last character removed, if it is a logical newline.

(Cool) routine substr

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr with the arguments.

(Cool) routine substr-rw

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and calls Str.substr-rw with the arguments.

(Cool) routine ords

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the first argument) to Str, and returns a list of Unicode codepoints for each character.

This is the list-returning version of ord. The inverse operation in chrs. If you are only interested in the number of codepoints, codes is a possibly faster option.

(Cool) routine chrs

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the argument list) to a list of integers, and returns the string created by interpreting each integer as a Unicode codepoint, and joining the characters.

This is the list-input version of chr. The inverse operation is ords.

(Cool) routine split

Defined as:

[1]

Coerces the invocant (or in the sub form, the second argument) to Str, splits it into pieces based on delimiters found in the string and returns the result as a Seq.

If $delimiter is a string, it is searched for literally and not treated as a regex. You can also provide multiple delimiters by specifying them as a list, which can mix Cool and Regex objects. By default, split omits the matches, and returns a list of only those parts of the string that did not match. Specifying one of the :k, :v, :kv, :p adverbs changes that. Think of the matches as a list that is interleaved with the non-matching parts. The :v interleaves the values of that list, which will be either Match objects, if a Regex was used as a matcher in the split, or Str objects, if a Cool was used as matcher. If multiple delimiters are specified, Match objects will be generated for all of them, unless all of the delimiters are Cool. :k interleaves the keys, that is, the indexes: :kv adds both indexes and matches: and :p adds them as Pairs, using the same types for values as :v does: You can only use one of the :k, :v, :kv, :p adverbs in a single call to split. Note that empty chunks are not removed from the result list. For that behavior, use the :skip-empty named argument: (Cool) routine lines Defined as: Coerces the invocant (and in sub form, the argument) to Str, decomposes it into lines (with the newline characters stripped), and returns the list of lines. This method can be used as part of an IO::Path to process a file line-by-line, since IO::Path objects inherit from Cool, e.g.: Without any arguments, sub lines operates on $*ARGFILES.

To modify values in place use is copy to force a writable container.

(Cool) method words

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant (or first argument, if it is called as a subroutine) to Str, and returns a list of words that make up the string. Check Str.words for additional arguments and its meaning.

Cool is the base class for many other classes, and some of them, like Match, can be converted to a string. This is what happens in this case:

The example above illustrates two of the ways words can be invoked, with the first argument turned into invocant by its signature. Of course, Inf is the default value of the second argument, so in both cases (and forms) it can be simply omitted.

Only whitespace (including no-break space) counts as word boundaries

In this case, "Boeing 747" includes a (visible only in the source) no-break space; words still splits the (resulting) Str on it, even if the original array only had 4 elements:

Please see Str.words for more examples and ways to invoke it.

(Cool) routine comb

Defined as:

Returns a Seq of all (or if supplied, at most $limit) matches of the invocant (method form) or the second argument (sub form) against the Regex, string or defined number. The second statement exemplifies the first form of comb, with a Regex that excludes multiples of ten, and a Range (which is Cool) as $input. comb stringifies the Range before applying .comb on the resulting string. Check Str.comb for its effect on different kind of input strings. When the first argument is an integer, it indicates the (maximum) size of the chunks the input is going to be divided in

In this case the input is a list, which after transformation to Str (which includes the spaces) is divided in chunks of size 3.

(Cool) method contains

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to a Str, and calls Str.contains on it. Please refer to that version of the method for arguments and general syntax.

Since Int is a subclass of Cool, 123 is coerced to a Str and then contains is called on it.

Seqs are also subclasses of Cool, and they are stringified to a comma-separated form. In this case we are also using an Int, which is going to be stringified also; "233" is included in that sequence, so it returns True. Please note that this sequence is not lazy; the stringification of lazy sequences does not include each and every one of their components for obvious reasons.

(Cool) routine index

Defined as:

Coerces the first two arguments (in method form, also counting the invocant) to a Str, and searches for $needle in the string $s starting from $pos. It returns the offset into the string where $needle was found, and Nil if it was not found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

(Cool) routine rindex

Defined as:

Coerces the first two arguments (including the invocant in method form) to Str and $pos to Int, and returns the last position of $needle in the string not after $pos. Returns Nil if $needle wasn't found.

See the documentation in type Str for examples.

(Cool) method match

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Stringy and calls the method match on it.

(Cool) routine roots

Defined as:

Coerces the first argument (and in method form, the invocant) to Numeric and the second ($n) to Int, and produces a list of $n Complex $n-roots, which means numbers that, raised to the $nth power, approximately produce the original number.

For example

(Cool) method subst

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Stringy and calls Str.subst.

(Cool) method trans

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to Str and calls Str.trans

(Cool) method IO

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to IO::Path.

(Cool) method sprintf

Defined as:

Returns a string according to a series format directives that are common in many languages; the object will be the format string, while the supplied arguments will be what's going to be formatted according to it.

(Cool) method printf

Defined as:

Uses the object, as long as it is a format string, to format and print the arguments

(Cool) method Complex

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to a Numeric and calls its .Complex method. Fails if the coercion to a Numeric cannot be done.

(Cool) method FatRat

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to a Numeric and calls its .FatRat method. Fails if the coercion to a Numeric cannot be done.

(Cool) method Int

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to a Numeric and calls its .Int method. Fails if the coercion to a Numeric cannot be done.

(Cool) method Num

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to a Numeric and calls its .Num method. Fails if the coercion to a Numeric cannot be done.

(Cool) method Rat

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to a Numeric and calls its .Rat method. Fails if the coercion to a Numeric cannot be done.

(Cool) method Real

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to a Numeric and calls its .Real method. Fails if the coercion to a Numeric cannot be done.

(Cool) method UInt

Defined as:

Coerces the invocant to an Int. Fails if the coercion to an Int cannot be done or if the Int the invocant had been coerced to is negative.